<em>Machadonannus brailovskyi</em> n. sp., una nueva especie de Schizopteridae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) de la región Afrotropical


  • Christiane Weirauch University of California, Riverside
  • Alexander Knyshov
  • Rochelle Hoey-Chamberlain



Palabras clave:

Heteroptera, Dipsocoromorpha, Afrotropical region, species discovery, taxonomy, morphology


Compared to the faunas of the Neotropical and Australian regions, the biodiversity of Afrotropical Dipsocoromorpha (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) is either relatively small or poorly documented. Only 37 species of Dipsocoromorpha, or minute litter bugs, have so far been reported from that biogeographic region. Recent residue sorting efforts of trap samples from Africa recovered >800 specimens of Schizopteridae. Most specimens belong to the genera Hypselosoma Reuter, 1884, Pinochius Carayon, 1949, Kokeshia Miyamoto, 1960, and Dundonannus Wygodzinsky, 1950, and closely related undescribed genera. We here focus on an apparently rarely collected genus, Machadonannus Wygodzinsky, 1950, that has remained monotypic so far, with the type species only known from Angola, and describe a new species, Machadonannus brailovskyi n. sp., from the Central African Republic. Habitus images are provided, as are light microscopical, macrophotographic, and confocal microscopical documentation of morphological features.


Carayon, J. 1949. Description d’un Schizopterinae africain, Pinochius africanus n. g., n. sp., et remarques sur les Hemipteres Cryptostemmatidae. Bulletin du Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle, Sér. 2, 21(2): 239–242.

Drake, C.J. 1961. A new subfamily, genus and two new species of Dipsocoridae (Hemiptera). Publicações Culturais da Companhia de Diamantes de Angola, 52: 77–80.

Emsley, M.G. 1969. The Schizopteridae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) with the descriptions of new species from Trinidad. Memoirs of the American Entomological Society, 25: 1–154.

Hill, L. 2013. A revision of Hypselosoma Reuter (Insecta: Heteroptera: Schizopteridae) from New Caledonia. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum, 56(2): 407–455.

Hill, L. 2014. Revision of Silhouettanus with description of nine new species (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Schizopteridae). Zootaxa, 3815(3): 353–385.

Huber, J.T. 2015. World reclassification of the Gonatocerus group of genera (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae). Zootaxa, 3967(1): 1–184.

Knyshov, A., S. Leon, R. Hoey-Chamberlain and C. Weirauch. 2016. Pegs, pouches, and spines: systematics and comparative morphology of the New World litter bug genus Chinannus Wygodzinsky, 1948. Thomas Say Publications in Entomology, Entomological Society of America, Annapolis, MD.

Leon, S. and C. Weirauch. 2016a. Small bugs, big changes: taxonomic revision of Orthorhagus McAtee and Malloch. Neotropical Entomology, 45(3): 559–572.

Leon, S. and C. Weirauch. 2016b. Scratching the surface? Taxonomic revision of the subgenus Schizoptera (Odontorhagus) reveals vast undocumented biodiversity in the largest litter bug genus Schizoptera Fieber (Hemiptera: Dipsocoromorpha). Zootaxa, 4184(2): 255–284.

Makhan, D. 2013. Voragocoris amrishi sp. nov., a new Schizopterinae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Schizopteridae) from Suriname. Calodema, 293: 1–4.

Noyes, J.S. 1982. Collecting and preserving chalcid wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea). Journal of Natural History, 16(3): 315–334.

Péricart, J. and A. Matocq. 2003. Two species of Dipsocoridae new for Algeria, one new for science (Heteroptera, Dipsocoromorpha). Nouvelle Revue d’Entomologie, 20(3): 255–257.

Platner, G.R., R.K. Velten, M. Planoutene and J.D. Pinto. 1999. Slide mounting techniques for Trichogramma (Trichogrammatidae) and other minute parasitic Hymenoptera. Entomological News, 110(1): 56–64.

Poppius, B. 1910. Neue Ceratocombiden. Öfversigt af Finska Vetenskapssocietetens Förhandlingar, 52(1): 1–14.

Rédei, D. 2008. Two new species of Kokeshia from India and Thailand (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Schizopteridae). Acta Entomologica Musei Nationalis Pragae, 48(2): 241–250.

Rédei, D., S. Ren and W. Bu. 2012. Two new species of Kokeshia from China (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Schizopteridae). Zootaxa, 3497: 29–36.

Reuter, O.M. 1894. Monographia Ceratocombidarum orbis terrestris. Acta Societatis Scientiarum Fennicae, 19(6): 1–28.

Southwood, T.R.E. 1961. Two new Schizopteridae (Hem.) collected by the Imperial College 1957 Ghana expedition. Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine, 97: 89– 92.

Štys, P. 1970. On the morphology and classification of the family Dipsocoridae s. lat., with particular reference to the genus Hypsipteryx Drake (Heteroptera). Acta Entomologica Bohemoslovaca, 67: 21–46.

Štys, P. 1977. First records of Dipsocoridae and Ceratocombidae from Madagascar (Heteroptera). Acta Entomologica Bohemoslovaca, 74: 295–315.

Štys, P. 1983. A new coleopteriform genus and species of Ceratocombidae from Zaire (Heteroptera, Dipsocoromorpha). VěstníkČeskoslovenské Společnosti Zoologické, 47(3): 221–230.

Štys, P. 1985. Two new species of Kokeshia (Heteroptera, Schizopteridae) from Nepal and appraisal of alleged synapomorphies of Paraneoptera. Acta Entomologica Bohemoslovaca, 82: 187–205.

Weirauch, C. and S. Frankenberg. 2015. From “insect soup” to biodiversity discovery: taxonomic revision of Peloridinannus Wygodzinsky, 1951 (Hemiptera: Schizopteridae), with description of six new species. Arthropod Systematics and Phylogeny, 73(3): 457–475.

Weirauch, C. and P. Štys. 2014. Litter bugs exposed: phylogenetic relationships of Dipsocoromorpha (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) based on molecular data. Insect Systematics & Evolution, 45(4): 351–370.

Wygodzinsky, P. 1950. Schizopterinae from Angola (Cryptostemmatidae, Hemiptera). Publicações Culturais da Companhia de Diamantes de Angola, 7: 9–47.

Wygodzinsky, P. 1953. Cryptostemmatinae from Angola (Cryptostemmatidae, Hemiptera). Publicações Culturais da Companhia de Diamantes de Angola, 16: 29–47.

Wygodzinsky, P. 1958. Hemiptera (Heteroptera): Dipsocoridae, Emesinae. pp. 109–112. In: Hanstrom, B., P. Brinck and G. Rudebeck (Eds.). South African Animal Life Vol. V. Almqvist and Wiksell, Stockholm.

Wygodzinsky, P. 1959. Un nouvel Hypselosoma de Madagascar, avec la description d’autre especes et des observations sur le genre (Schizopterinae, Dipsocoridae, Hemiptera). Mémoires de l’Institut Scientifique de Madagascar, 11: 509–539.